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MycoMIND - Research

Lion’s Mane

The original discovery of Lion’s Mane’s ability to increase Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) occurred in 1991 and is credited to Japanese scientists, Dr. Kawagishi. This discovery presented a massive paradigm shift in the way science looks at brain cells. No longer a finite number that decreases over our lifespan, entire fields of scientific research have since been devoted to maintaining - even increasing - brain cell counts for enhanced cognitive function and longevity.

Since that time, numerous studies have confirmed that this naturally occurring mushroom contains active compounds that stimulate NGF synthesis in human cells and promotes neurite outgrowth via activation of the JNK pathway (Jun amino-terminal kinase) This was proven in vivo. When they fed mice with Lions Mane powder there was an increase in the level of NGF mRNA expression in the hippocampus. [3,4]

A study published in the September 2014 edition of the International Journal of Molecular Science confirmed that Lion’s Mane contains a compound known as Erinacine A that effectively scavenges free radicals, inhibiting inflammation and helps repair injured brain and nerve cells. [5]

Based on a 2010 study published in Biomedical Research, Lion’s Mane seems to decrease anxiety and depression symptoms. [6]

According to a 2008 Japanese study, Lion’s Mane seems to halt and reverse (increased score on cognitive function scale) cognitive decline in 50-80 year old Japanese men and women who suffered from mild cognitive impairment. The effect weren’t permanent and the scores declined after 4 weeks of stopping the ingestion of Lion’s Mane. [7]

BioPQQ

Pyrroloquinoline quinone, or PQQ for short, is a coenzyme that was discovered in 1979. PQQ is involved in many of the body’s natural metabolic processes and PQQ supplementation has been shown in studies to provide neuroprotective activity, anti-oxidative activity, and mitochondrial biogenesis.

Our source, BioPQQ is the industry leader for pryyoloquinoline quinone. Simply put, PQQ helps us create new mitochondria. [8]

In recent years, a substantial body of evidence has underscored the importance of mitochondrial function in maintaining energy balance, minimizing oxidative stress and promoting longevity. Mitochondrial function has been examined in many aspects, including metabolic, neural and age-related conditions. PQQ deficiency decreases the size, number and function of mitochondria in rodents, and supplementation reverses these effects.[9,10,11]

Supplementation with PQQ has been shown to improve memory and reasoning, while more studies indicate that PQQ offers neuro-protective properties via reduction of oxidative damage. In a randomized, double-blind study of 71 middle aged individuals, PQQ supplementation over 12 weeks significantly improved short term memory and demonstrated the ability to prevent memory loss. [12,13,14]

In 2012, Japanese researchers performed the first human study examining the effect of BioPQQ on stress, fatigue, and sleep. They concluded that supplementing with PQQ improved sleep, leading to reduced negative mental states, relief of fatigue and rise of positive mood. Other important conclusions from this study were that “mood also was improved by diminishing feelings of fatigue, and improved measures of appetite, sleep, pain and obsession with no adverse effects.” [15]

A 2016 study examining the impact of BioPQQ using near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS) found that cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex was increased by the administration of PQQ. “The results suggest that PQQ can prevent reduction of brain function in aged persons, especially in attention and working memory.” [16]


Resources:
  1. Kawagishi, H. Lion’s Mane: The Anti-Dementia Effect of Lion's Mane Mushroom and it’s Clinical Application. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. APRIL 2004
  2. Mori K. Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.Phytother Res. 2009 Mar;23(3):367-72. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2634.
  3. Mori K. Nerve growth factor-inducing activity of Hericium erinaceus in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Sep;31(9):1727-32.
  4. Lai PL. Neurotrophic properties of the Lion's mane medicinal mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Malaysia. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2013;15(6):539-54.
  5. Lee K-F, Chen J-H, Teng C-C, et al. Protective Effects of Hericium erinaceus Mycelium and Its Isolated Erinacine A against Ischemia-Injury-Induced Neuronal Cell Death via the Inhibition of iNOS/p38 MAPK and Nitrotyrosine. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014;15(9):15073-15089. doi:10.3390/ijms150915073.
  6. Nagano M. Reduction of depression and anxiety by 4 weeks Hericium erinaceus intake. Biomed Res. 2010 Aug;31(4):231-7.
  7. Mori K. Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.Phytother Res. 2009 Mar;23(3):367-72. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2634.
  8. Chowanadisai W. Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and increased PGC-1alpha expression. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jan 1;285(1):142-52. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.030130. Epub 2009 Oct 27.
  9. Stites T, Storms D, Bauerly K, Mah J, et al. Pyrroloquinoline quinone modulates mitochondrial quantity and function in mice. J Nutr. 2006;136(2):390-6.
  10. Bauerly KA, Storms DH, Harris CB, Hajizadeh S, et al. Pyrroloquinoline quinone nutritional status alters lysine metabolism and modulates mitochondrial DNA content in the mouse and rat. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1760(11):1741-8.
  11. Zhu BQ, Simonis U, Cecchini G, Zhou HZ, et al. Comparison of pyrroloquinoline quinone and/or metoprolol on myocardial infarct size and mitochondrial damage in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion injury. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2006;11(2):119-28.
  12. He B. The roles of PI3K/Akt pathway in proliferation of Schwann cells promoted by pyrroloquinoline quinone. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2010 Jan;26(1):53-6.
  13. Ohwada K, Takeda H, Yamazaki M, Isogai H, et al. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) prevents cognitive deficit caused by oxidative stress in rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2008;42:29-34]
  14. Nakano M, Ubukata K, Yamamoto T, Yamaguchi H. Effect of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) on mental status of middle-aged and elderly persons. FOOD Style 21 2009;13(7):50-53.
  15. Nakano, M. Effects of Oral Supplementation with Pyrroloquinoline Quinone on Stress, Fatigue, and Sleep. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(8):307-324 Page 307 of 324
  16. Itoh, Y. Effect of the Antioxidant Supplement Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt (BioPQQ™) on Cognitive Functions. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;876:319-25.

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