The Ultimate Guide to Dopamine: The Motivation Neurotransmitter
The Ultimate Guide to Dopamine: The Motivation NeurotransmitterDopamine is one of your body's most important natural chemicals. In this brain feast, you’ll learn:
*What dopamine is
*How it functions in your brain
*Symptoms of too much or too little dopamine
*The difference between dopamine and other neurotransmitters
*How to naturally increase your dopamine
This guide will help you get the right amount of dopamine in your brain to live a driven, sharp, focused, and successful life.
Chapter 1: What Are Neurotransmitters?In this chapter we’ll explore what neurotransmitters are, how they work, and what sets dopamine apart from the rest. So if you’re ready to dive deep into the driver, dopamine, this chapter is the one for you.
What The Heck is a Neurotransmitter?
Let’s begin with the nitty gritty of neurotransmitters. Your brain communicates with itself and other parts of your body through chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. You have an intricate system of nerve cells, called neurons. Neurons are specialized cells that transmit impulses and send messages throughout your body, communicating to one another.
When a nerve releases a neurotransmitter “message” it crosses a small gap called the synapse, then attaches to a receptor on the next nerve. Think of these like internet connections.
But instead of being connected by a wire, they have a small gap called a synapse between one another. Almost like wifi versus dial up.
This gap allows for the electrical impulse to be changed into a chemical signal, in order to send the right message.
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that send messages through this gap, between neurons or from neurons to muscles.
Neurotransmitters bind at the receiving cells (receptors) and trigger changes. Just like a key and lock, the neurotransmitters can “open the door” to a new action. If the key matches the lock, the message is received, if not, it either waits to get reabsorbed or enters at a slower pace.
These key-like chemicals impact endless functions of the nervous system and your body. When they work in harmony, you feel good, have a sharp mind, and a well behaved body. Physical and emotional equilibrium.
But when the brain and body communication systems break down, your psychological well-being may suffer. Too much or too little neurotransmitter levels are associated with disorders such as depression, anxiety, or physical ailments.
Neurotransmitter Support Team
We all need a helping hand. A neurotransmitter starts as a precursor. To support precursors in becoming a neurotransmitter and balancing your brain, they require helper molecules, known as cofactors.
Simply put, a precursor is a substance from which another is formed. It’s an inactive substance that becomes an active one, such as a neurotransmitter. It’s derived from an available source -- typically from your diet or supplements.
A cofactor is an organic molecule that is required for enzymatic activity, or revving up a reaction in your body. They’re considered to be helper molecules that assist in transformation. A cofactor starts the engine on a process of change.
Your body is constantly adjusting and adapting to what’s thrown at it; rebalancing and creating homeostasis. The key is to support your body in manufacturing a healthy amount of neurotransmitters. With neurotransmitter unanimity, you get:
Enhanced mood and regulated emotionsMore motivation to do the things you loveAcute focus; think clearly and being present in your favorite activities Restful and rejuvenating sleep Movement, attention, learning, motivation, behavior
Chapter 2: What is Dopamine?
Think about your guilty pleasure right now. That something (or someone) that you can’t resist. Feel that distinctive motivation surging through your body. That sensual and enticing drive to go after it.
This chapter is all about understanding what dopamine is and how it drives us.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter produced by the brain that acts as a chemical messenger between brain cells. Although it is produced by just a handful of cells, dopamine has a powerful effect on many physical and cognitive functions:
Dopamine is also responsible for the reward learning and pleasure feelings, which is why it's often considered “the pleasure neurotransmitter”.
Small amounts of this neurotransmitter are released in your brain when anything is done that is conducive to survival, including sex and eating.
It’s the primary neurotransmitter involved in reward systems and addiction. This is the neurotransmitter that keeps you coming back for more of those “guilty” pleasures.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, one form of “communication” in your brain and body. Dopamine is associated with behavior, mood, cognition, attention, learning, movement, and sleep . Dopamine is a brain chemical that draws you towards pleasurable experiences. It helps with reinforcement — motivating you to do something again and again.
Dopamine is a monoamine neurotransmitter produced in the dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area of the substantia nigra, midbrain and arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Outside the central nervous system, it’s found in the kidneys where it functions to produce renal vasodilation and diuresis .
Dopamine is defined as a catecholamine neurotransmitter. Catecholamines are a type of neurotransmitters that are produced in the sympathetic nervous system -- fight or flight.
Dopamine is a modulatory neurotransmitter meaning that it impacts many neurons at once.
Both dopamine and norepinephrine are synthesized from the precursor tyrosine (an amino acid - protein building block).
Dopamine functions as a hormone and a neurotransmitter and plays several important roles in the brain and body. The brain includes several dopamine pathways, involved in reward-motivated behaviors, motor control, and controlling the release of hormones.
The role of dopamine extends outside of the central nervous system:
Vasodilator: makes blood vessels widen, helping decrease blood pressure
Reduces gastrointestinal motility: Better digestion and in some cases relieves nausea and vomiting .
Decreases insulin production: helps with blood sugar balance .
Protects immune system: Can be synthesized in immune cells which help the body’s response to infection or illness .
Dopamine has been linked to diseases including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis and autoimmune disorders .
Dopamine is taken as medication to treat some conditions. Medications fall into one of two categories: agonists and antagonists.
Dopamine agonists activate dopamine receptors to increase the amount of dopamine absorbed in specific areas of the brain. They’re typically used to treat conditions associated with a dopamine deficiency, including Parkisons and restless leg syndrome. Indirect agonists are sometimes used to treat attention deficit disorders .
A dopamine receptor agonist is a compound that activates dopamine receptors. They kick start signaling pathways that lead to changes in gene expression.
Dopamine agonists mimic dopamine by binding to proteins on the neurons called dopamine receptors. There are several types of dopamine receptors and particular types are more involved in movement. In the medications, the agonists are man made and designed to bind to and activate particular dopamine receptors on neurons.
The problem with these medications is that they have a set of possible side effects. Including nausea, hallucinations, sleepiness, dizziness, and lightheadedness .
Dopamine antagonists serve the opposite function and block dopamine receptors. This prevents the reuptake (absorption of neurotransmitter by nerve ending) of dopamine and helps regulate the levels. These are most commonly used to treat psychiatric disorders like bipolar disorder or schizophrenia .
Receptors receive messages from, or are activated by a neurotransmitter. The nervous system contains two basic types of receptors - fast receptor systems and slower receptor systems.
Fast receptor systems such as the GABA receptor and the slower G-protein-linked receptor system, as seen in the dopaminergic system, which work through a second-messenger system and have a longer duration of action.
All dopamine receptors are similar in structure and mediate their effects through G-proteins (guanine nucleotide-binding proteins). These are a family of proteins that act as switches inside cells and transmit signals from stimulus outside of the cell, into the cell.
Dopamine receptors are the primary targets in the treatment of many disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, Hunington’s chorea, and schizophrenia .
There are five types of dopamine receptors including D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5. These receptors act in an opposing manner when bound to dopamine in terms of their impact on cellular excitation (activity of receiving nerve cell).
In order to understand how they work, it’s first helpful to understand the difference between excitatory and inhibitory functions:
Excitatory: promotes an electrical signal or impulse that is then allowed along the muscle or nerve cell.
Inhibitory: the receiving neuron prevents an electrical signal from being received.
Modulatory: not just restricted to the synaptic cleft (the area between two neurons) so they can impact many neurons at once. This happens over a slower time than excitatory and inhibitory transmitters.
Dopamine receptors are also categorized into two main subtypes:
D1-like receptors: (D1 and D5): excitation (via opening of sodium channels) or inhibition (via opening of potassium channels).
D2-like receptors: (D2, D3, and D4): typically inhibition of the target neuron.
D1 are the most numerous dopamine receptors in the human nervous system and D2 are the second most abundant. D3, D4, and D5 are present at much lower levels 
D1 and D2 receptors have important and contrasting functions at the prefrontal cortex that are important for cognitive functions including working memory and attention. Cells of the direct pathway mainly express the D1 receptor and the cells of the indirect pathway express the D2 receptor.
Chapter 3: The Relationship Between Dopamine and Your Other Neurotransmitters
Now that you know what dopamine is and how it works, it’s important to understand how it relates to other neurotransmitters in your body.
Meet The Neurotransmitter Family ...
Until recently, it was thought that neurotransmitters were generally separate. For instance it a neuron is inhibitory, it releases GABA, and if it’s modulatory, it releases another neurotransmitter such as dopamine. But new studies show that certain neurons can release more than one neurotransmitter.
Each neurotransmitter system does not operate in isolation, rather your body is constantly balancing the neurotransmitter chemistry.
Dopamine and serotonin are both naturally occurring chemicals in your body that impact your mood, happiness, motivation, and well being. Serotonin differs from dopamine in the way it influences your mood, emotion, sleep, appetite and hormones. It’s known as the “happy” neurotransmitter when dopamine is knowns as the “motivation” or “reward” neurotransmitter.
Dopamine dysfunction tends to be linked to certain symptoms of depression, such as low motivation. Serotonin is more so involved in processing emotions, which can affect your overall mood.
Take the quiz: Are you dopamine or serotonin dominant?
Some studies have shown that dopamine may directly inhibit some GABA receptors and the release of dopamine may directly enhance signalling at some sites . In one study there was a direct link found between GABA activation and dopamine suppression.
In another study, researchers found that GABA was actually being released from dopaminergic axons. In other words, it’s been shown that GABA cells might release dopamine, and dopamine cells do release GABA .
Acetylcholine helps with attention, concentration, and mental clarity. The action of dopamine is opposed by acetylcholine. Meaning if there is a loss of dopamine, there may be too much acetylcholine. They both have an impact on diseases including schizophrenia, mood disorders, addiction, and Parkinson’s .
Chapter 4: How Dopamine Affects Your Brain
In this chapter we’ll really get into how dopamine affects your brain and changes behaviors.
The Dopamine Effect
What if you started thinking about achieving your goals with the same satisfaction an addict thinks about the next fix?
You may be one of the most driven and productive people you know. The brain is wired for this drive because dopamine is released in relation to positive experiences.
It happens every time you achieve a goal, when you exercise, or have a good social interaction.
Dopamine improves many aspects of cognitive performance, including motivation, memory and focus. Studies in lab animals have shown that dopamine is crucial for the formation of memories, and it appears to be particularly important for motivation-based learning and goal-directed behavior .
Dopamine is what allows you to form lasting memories and makes you want to “get after it” and get the job done.
Dopamine is produced in the brain before traveling to other brain cell receptors to relay information. Two areas of the brain produce dopamine:
Substantia nigra (SN): Responsible for movement and speech
Ventral tegmental area (VTA): Controls reward signals and reinforcement
What do you expect?
Dopamine is referred to as the “reward chemical” but this title may be a bit misleading. It’s also influenced by the expectation of pleasurable experiences. Almost everything you do in your life comes with an expected prediction. The dopamine response in your brain tracks what you expect. Once you expect something or get used to something, not as much dopamine is released.
Unexpected events like getting unforeseen praise from your boss or running into a friend randomly on the street will lead to positive prediction errors and increases in dopamine. But if you get what you expect, even if it’s very pleasurable, dopamine may play less of a role .
How dopamine makes you more successful
Your success largely depends on your ability to learn from your experiences and to distinguish good decisions from the bad and adapt. Evidence indicates that dopamine plays an important role in mental performance and tapping into the system that has the potential to improve memory, learning, decision-making and planning.
In one study, volunteers were treated with drugs that either increased or decreased dopamine levels, and were then asked to perform a reward-based learning task  Through a computer program, each volunteer was shown pairs of symbols, each with a different dollar value representing a gain or a loss. Researchers then assessed the participants’ ability to maximize their gain.
Volunteers who had the highest levels of dopamine ended up with the most money at the end.
Every time the participants were rewarded for choosing the correct symbol, their dopamine committed that positive experience to their memory and helped them remember how to replicate the experience later.
The relationship between dopamine levels and performance follows a bell curve, both excess and deficiency can impair mental performance  . This is why a balance of dopamine is so important.
Everything in moderation, even when it comes to dopamine.
Dopamine improves physical and athletic performance
Studies on animals show that genetic differences in dopamine expression may account for the better performance and physical abilities.
One study done on lab rats shows that running increases the activity of brain dopamine  This effect is more pronounced in trained rats who have been running for 8 weeks (roughly equivalent to a few human years) than in untrained rats .
Researchers also found that rats that were genetically bred for high-capacity running were more sensitive to dopamine than their regular-running counterparts. These rats also had a higher dopamine turnover, meaning that dopamine-producing neurons were more active .
Human studies on dopamine are limited because scientists do not have as much control over our environment like they do with rats. Similar to the rat studies, genetic differences in the dopamine receptor gene may explain different exercise capacity in different people.
One study showed that although prolonging dopamine activity does not affect athletic performance of cyclists in mild weather, it did improve their time-trial scores in hot weather 
Results show that dopamine could help increase exercise capacity under stressful conditions, such as heat. Exercise briefly increases dopamine levels in the brain, increasing energy and focus.In elite athletes, dopamine does not get depleted as quickly, leaving them in the state of heightened performance for a longer period of time.
Raising and maintaining dopamine levels could possibly mimic the endurance and performance of elite athletes.
Dopamine and Parkinson’s disease.
Parkinson’s disease is characterized by the loss of cells that make dopamine. The most apparent symptoms of the disease are related to movement, and include tremors, slow movement and rigid muscles.
Parkinson’s patients often have cognitive symptoms as well, such as difficulties with planning and organization, focus and memory. Treatment with a dopamine precursor not only improves motor symptoms, but can also restore memory, focus and planning ability .
While Parkinson’s disease is the most severe form of dopamine deficiency, there are also milder symptoms of dopamine depletion.
Chapter 5: Symptoms of Dopamine Imbalance
If there’s too much or too little of any one neurotransmitter, the balance of the brain is upset and it manifests in ways you think, feel, and behave.
Dopamine is associated with motivation, focus, and productivity. People who are “go-getters” and sometimes a little intense tend to be dopamine-dominant.
Those who struggle to find a drive may have low dopamine levels or be dopamine deficient.
This chapter is all about the lows and the highs and how they lead to drive or disease.
Are Your Dopamine Levels Out of Whack?
When your brain produces the right levels of dopamine, you have balanced mood and focus and are motivated to complete a task. It can positively affect memory because you’ll tend to remember the behaviors that cause a dopamine increase. Genetics and your brain chemistry comes to play, of course, but this also can be done through a healthy lifestyle.
The dark side of dopamine
When produced and functioning normally, dopamine can help you maintain a happy, motivated, and driven mood.
But in some situations, dopamine can have a negative effect on the brain; addiction being an example because the rewarding experiences trigger a dopamine release -- making you want to seek the positive and pleasurable experiences over and over again.
Dopamine is also linked with addictive behaviors like addiction to drugs, food, shopping, sex, gambling, and various other addictions.
Addictive drugs stimulate the reward circuitry in the brain. The reason that drugs like cocaine, amphetamines and heroin are so addictive is that they increase the release of dopamine and then act as dopamine reuptake inhibitors - meaning that dopamine is active in the brain for extended periods.
Those of you who tend to have an addictive personality, may experience dopamine overload, giving you feelings of euphoria and bliss. These feelings encode in your brain and can drive you to abuse food or drugs in order to reach this level again. This is otherwise known as tolerance.
Just like any chemical reaction in your body, if you abuse it, you can “lose it”. The sex, drug, and rock-and-roll behaviors increase dopamine levels quickly and intensely, but these actions are short lived.
Repeated drug abuse and drug addiction can change the threshold required for dopamine cell activation and signaling. Overuse and abuse of drugs increases your threshold of how much gets you “high”. This is also known as tolerance. Drug users have been shown to have significant decreases in dopamine D2 receptors and dopamine release .
Although not as drastic, the same goes with abusing other substances such as food. If you eat a lot of sugar and fat, it can suppress dopamine. In addition, if you’re eating too many sweets and not enough protein, you may be making matters worse. Not getting enough l-tyrosine, which is an amino acid found in protein foods, will also prevent dopamine production in the body.
Shopping, video games, porn, and gambling all may end up increasing dopamine but the effects are short and brief. Gaming raises dopamine levels in the brain to about the same degree as eating yummy treats - about double it’s normal level. In comparison to drugs like heroin and cocaine, that raise dopamine by roughly ten times as much as that .
Have you or someone you know ever lost joy in the enjoyable things in life when you or they get low? This may be in part from too little dopamine, which has a big impact on a person’s reward-seeking behavior .
Balanced dopamine calls for confidence and focus. Symptoms of low levels of dopamine will vary slightly from person to person. A good standard to know if you don’t have enough dopamine is if you notice a decrease in motivation to do the things you enjoy, otherwise known as apathy.
Some signs of low dopamine levels are:
*Depression (feeling low)
*Inability to handle stress
*Inability to concentrate or focus
*Failure to finish tasks
*Low sex drive
*Sugar of alcohol cravings
*Stiffness in muscles or cramps
*Loss of balance
Keep in mind that none of these symptoms or side effects are exclusively caused by low dopamine but balancing the levels of dopamine can help improve these or related symptoms.
Under normal circumstances, the creation of dopamine is well regulated by your brain and nervous system. But as with all intricate and complex systems of your beautiful biology, there’s room for error. Some of your habits and lifestyle factors may impact dopamine production.
Dopamine can also become unbalanced with deficiency. This can either be due to a problem with production or with the receptors in the brain. A deficiency can lead to problems like depression, fatigue, short term memory loss, trouble concentrating, and lack of motivation or difficulty completing tasks .
Dopamine deficiency is also associated with, but doesn’t necessarily cause, many mental health disorders. The most common conditions linked to dopamine deficiency include:
*Psychosis (hallucinations, loss of contact with reality)
*Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
*Parkinson’s disease .
Chapter 6: How to Naturally Increase Dopamine
Dopamine improves every aspect of human performance. So whether you're trying to get a great time on your next marathon, or need the mental edge to turn in a game-changing piece of work, it's dopamine that will help you get motivated to get it done.
This chapter is focused on teaching you healthy ways to increase dopamine so you can get what you’re working towards.
Increase Your Dopamine
Dopamine levels can be naturally increased by exercising, meditating or paying extra attention to our nutrition. There are other ways to boost dopamine, such as plowing through coffee, satisfying hunger with junk food, “relaxing” with a drink or two every evening, or even exercising to the point of exhaustion -- the typical American lifestyle.
However these raise dopamine levels briefly, but end up lowering them even more in the long term.
Dopamine depletion can be caused by lifestyle factors, from overtraining to excess alcohol.
Unnatural (and unhealthy) ways to increase dopamine
Its common to want to boost focus and energy by using substances such as nicotine, caffeine, sugar, and junk food. Yes they may boost dopamine levels immediately but they may end up disrupting the natural dopamine process, resulting in decreased dopamine production or dopamine resistance in the long-term.
Food manufacturers unfortunately know how to get this system working to their advantage. Processed foods and sweets have mega doses of sugar, salt, and fat. You scarf it then dopamine floods your brain, making it hard to stop after one bite and making you crawl back for more.
Natural ways to increase dopamine levels
Take note that when a food, supplement, or activity is described as “boosting dopamine”, it could mean that the dopamine amount is changing or that it’s being better utilized.
Having “increased dopamine” may also mean that the breakdown of dopamine is slower, more dopamine is being circulated again in the brain, more dopamine receptors are being created, or the dopamine receptors you already have are working better. So keep in mind that these are all natural ways to better support the dopamine system.
Eat protein rich foods
Tyrosine and phenylalanine are two amino acids that are used in the production of dopamine in your body. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. You can think of them like lego blocks because they connect to build larger protein compounds.
Some of these amino acids are essential, meaning that your body can’t create them on its own so you need to get it from your diet or supplements. Some are conditionally essential, meaning your body needs it from food or supplement sometimes, like during illness or stress. And some are non-essential, meaning your body can create it on its own.
Dopamine synthesis includes tyrosine and phenylalanine. Tyrosine is a conditionally essential amino acid. It gets converted from phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid so you need it from your diet.
Tyrosine: soy, dairy, beef, lamb, pork, fish, nuts, seeds, beans, whole grains
Phenylalanine: dairy, meat, fish, chicken, eggs, nuts, beans Eat vitamin rich foods
The above amino acids also need nutrient cofactors to help produce dopamine. A cofactor is a non-protein chemical that assists a biological chemical reaction . Some are made in the body while others must be consumed in food. Basically we need to get them from food or supplements in order for our cells to be able to perform essential life functions.
Down these for desired dopamine
L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine are precursors, working together to synthesize dopamine. Vitamin B6 and Vitamin C are cofactors, playing an essential role in helping convert the above precursors into dopamine. Folate, Vitamin B12, and Trimethylglycine support methylation, a process that allows metabolic reactions to properly work, positively influencing many healthy systems in your body.
The nutrient cofactors: vitamin C, vitamin B6, folate, and vitamin B12, help tyrosine turn into dopamine.
Vitamin C: citrus fruit (oranges, lime, lemon), broccoli, bell peppers, tomatoes
Vitamin B6: pork, fish, poultry, wholegrains, eggs, soy
Folate: leafy greens, beans, lentils, fortified products (bread, juice, cereal)
Vitamin B12: eggs, poultry, fish, dairy, meat, fortified foods (nutritional yeast and cereals)
Physical activity is one of the best things for the human brain. Recent studies have shown that it can create new neural pathways and prevent age-related decline . Habitually physical active animals have shown enhanced ability to up-regulate dopamine activity in the brain and increase receptor sensitivity . Exercise has dramatic antidepressant effects and can blunt the brain’s response to physical and emotional stress. It also has those feel good endorphins that keep you coming back for more.
Meditation and yoga can increase the release of dopamine. Studies have shown that during meditation, there’s as much as a 65% increase in endogenous dopamine release . Research has also shown that people who meditate regularly may be less influenced by negative reinforcement learning. Through meditation, dopamine levels may rebalance and improve the way we respond to rewarding and punishing experiences. Meditation makes it easier to deal with what life throws our way .
Lack of sleep or missing out on good quality sleep has been shown to reduce concentrations of dopamine as well as the receptors for it. Dopamine has two main types of receptors and the current hypothesis is that the energizing, wakefulness promoting effects of dopamine may be controlled partially by the D2 receptor. Getting enough sleep is essential for your mental health and neurotransmitter production.
Listen to music
You already know this -- music can increase pleasurable feelings, improve mood, and boost energy. One study found that music increases dopamine release in areas of the brain during peak moments of emotional arousal when listening to music. When we anticipate, then actually experience a pleasurable response while listening to music, our brain reacts by releasing dopamine, making us feel good and wanting more 
Get or give yourself a massage
One way to keep healthy dopamine levels is to avoid stress. Sustained chronic stress can lead to elevations in the stress hormone, cortisol which can reduce serotonin and dopamine in the brain.
Massage therapy can decrease levels of cortisol and therefore increase levels of serotonin and dopamine. In one study, those with depression and those suffering from stressful situations, were given massage therapy and had an average of 28% increase in serotonin and 31% for dopamine .
Eat more pre and probiotics
Probiotics are healthy bacteria that live in your digestive tract. They help your body with everything from nutrient creation to reducing inflammation. It’s important to keep a balance of gut bacteria because they can help prevent health problems and influence your mood. Your gut and brain are besties in the way they impact one another; also called the gut-brain axis.
Some of the harmful bacteria in the gut have been shown to decrease dopamine production. Probiotics on the other hand, have increase dopamine and may help improve your mood .
To increase the amount of healthy bacteria in your gut, you want to both eat foods that contain probiotics and foods that contain prebiotics - the food source for those bacteria.
Prebiotics: jerusalem artichoke, garlic, onions, asparagus, banana, oats
Probiotics: yogurt, kefir, kombucha, kimchi, sauerkraut, and fermented foods
You can also consume a trusted supplement that contains both pro and prebiotics.
Support your body through supplements
One of the best ways to support your body in it's dopamine-boosting abilities is to focus on the precursors and cofactors of dopamine. This will allow your body to naturally make healthy doses of dopamine on its own. When looking for a supplement, aim for one that contains these important nutrients:
L-Tyrosine: an amino acid precursor to dopamine known for its cognitive enhancing functions.
L-Phenylalanine: another amino acid precursor to dopamine that gets converted into L-Tyrosine. Known to increase alertness.
Vitamin B6: cofactor of dopamine, helps synthesis it and other neurotransmitters. Also known to improve energy levels and support healthy nerves.
Vitamin B12: another cofactor important for supporting the nervous system. It’s essential for healthy cognitive function and memory recall.
Folate: contributes to normal, healthy brain function as well as DNA stability and gene expression.
Vitamin C: a powerful antioxidant which helps protect brain cells. Helps reduce oxidative stress and damage.
Trimethylglycine: commonly known as betaine, it’s used to help improve muscle function and size.
Take the driver’s seat of your dopamine
We hope you've enjoyed learning about dopamine and the relationship your body has with this important neurotransmitter.
Now it’s your turn! Which of the natural dopamine boosters are you going to try first?
Which of the unhealthy dopamine factors are you going to work on breaking the habit of?
It’s all trial and error, learning what brings your body and mind beyond the base level.
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