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Antibiotics Wipe Out Gut Microbiome, Vitamin C is Neuroprotective, PDE4 Inhibition Anti-Inflammatory


It's time for another edition of Research Roundup.

In RR #6, we're highlighting exciting new studies that show how even a single dose of antibiotics can wipe out our gut microbiome, Vitamin C has neuroprotective properties, and PDE4 inhibition shows promise as a potential treatment for diseases on inflammation.

A single course of antibiotics devastates gut microbiome for a full year

A study published last month examined the effects of antibiotics on the microbiomes in our mouth and our gut. The results were somewhat surprising.

Researchers administered common antibiotics (clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and minocycline) to 66 adults in the United Kingdom and Sweden and tested both oral and fecal microbiomes at baseline, and then again at 1, 2, 4, and 12 months afterward.

Mouth microbiomes proved resilient and bounced back quickly. Our gut microbiome showed significantly greater devastation:

"The fecal microbiome was severely affected by most antibiotics: for months, health-associated butyrate-producing species became strongly underrepresented. Additionally, there was an enrichment of genes associated with antibiotic resistance. Clearly, even a single antibiotic treatment in healthy individuals contributes to the risk of resistance development and leads to long-lasting detrimental shifts in the gut microbiome." [1]

Of interesting note is the decline of butyrate-producing species.

Biohackers and health enthusiasts may recognize this fatty acid as the health powerhouse we obtain from butter as well as resistant starches like Prebiotic +.

If you're not familiar with resistant starches, they're carbohydrates that are not digested (hence the name - RESISTANT starch), so they pass through to our gut where they are fermented by the good bacteria, producing butryate.

In the simplest terms, prebiotics are food for our probiotics and they are a great way maintain a healthy digestive system - and they're also a great way to rebuild it after a dose of antibiotics or other acute event that may wipe out our (like holiday cheat meals that contain alcohol and gluten)

Also, be sure to read our post on natural cold and flu remedies and immune boosters for tips on how to avoid or at least reduce the severity and duration of your cold or flu without antibiotics.

Vitamin C - ascorbic acid - is neuroprotective

In a study published less than a month ago, the familiar Vitamin C racked up another remarkable health benefit to add to it's resume - prevention of neurodegradation.

Vitamin C plays a key role in Central Nervous System (CNS) functioning as it is abosorbed by neurons from the synaptic clefts. Inside those neurons, Vitamin C exhibits antioxidant properties - scavenging free radicals, or reactive oxygen species (ROS) - and it then expelled into the extracellular space and recycled or excreted. [2]

The researchers explain, "Multiple evidence links oxidative stress with neurodegeneration, positioning redox imbalance and ROS as a cause of neurodegeneration." Clearly the strong ROS-reducing properties of Vitamin C make it an effective neuroprotective molecule.

More and more, the secret to optimal health and longevity is proving to lie in our ability to limit stress, inflammation, as well as both glycation and oxidation. 

As with anything we put in our body, the quality of that substance is paramount. That's why we made sure the ascorbic acid in our Vitamin C + Zinc comes from non-GMO corn. Sourced from Quali-C and the green hills of Scotland, our Vitamin C is yet another example of how we're going the extra mile to help biohackers all over the world optimize their health and longevity!

PDE4 inhibition shows promise for treatment of chronic inflammation of skin & joints

First, a reminder on what PDE4 actually is.

Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a key enzyme in the degradation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and is centrally involved in the cytokine production of inflammatory cells, angiogenesis, and the functional properties of other cell types such as keratinocytes. [3]

In this particular research paper, scientists examined the effects of PDE4 via the administration of Apremilast, a PDE4 inhibiting, anti-inflammatory prescription medication generally used in the treatment of psoriasis.

They found that it "reduces complex inflammatory processes, such as dendritic cell infiltration, epidermal skin thickening, and joint destruction" and concluded that "it may emerge as a promising new drug for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as those of the skin and the joints."

Recall that the main mechanism of action in CILTEP is the inhibition of PDE4, thereby increasing cAMP to facilitate long-term memory potentiation.

With it's PDE4 inhibiting properties, CILTEP may also lower inflammatory cytokines, reducing chronic inflammation, and in accordance with this study may improve complexion and joint health. Exciting for sure, but more studies would need to be conducted before we could make those claims.

Sure, we're using transitive properties in that statement, but we do know for sure that CILTEP inhibits PDE4...


Artichoke Extract (Inhibits PDE4) + Forskolin (Increases cAMP) = LTP = Increased Mental functioning that we all seek


  1. Egija, Z. Same Exposure but Two Radically Different Responses to Antibiotics: Resilience of the Salivary Microbiome versus Long-Term Microbial Shifts in Feces. American Society For Microbiology.
  2. Old Things New View: Ascorbic Acid Protects the Brain in Neurodegenerative Disorders. International Journal of Molecular Science. 2015 Nov 27;16(12):28194-217
  3. Schett, G. Apremilast: A Novel PDE4 Inhibitor in the Treatment of Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2010 Oct; 2(5): 271–278.


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